By Kent W. Mayhew

**Cosmology**

**Entropy and the Second Law**

Certainly the rewriting of thermodynamics will have implications to cosmology.
Perhaps first and foremost is the reality that entropy no longer applies to an expanding universe (assuming Hubble was right). This
means that we no longer have to consider the implications of any apparent randomness changes within our universe, in the context of
either entropy, nor the second law.

For example: Enrico Fermi once stated that the work of an expanding universe “goes
into the hands of god”, a statement completely lacking scientific fortitude. Such thought was based upon the erroneous traditional
assertion that work goes into an expanding system’s wall, irrelevant as to whether those walls are real or imaginary. Although this
is a mathematical result, the reality is that work is always done through an expanding system’s walls onto the surroundings (i.e.lost work), or into a neighbouring system (i.e. a car).

As Earth shattering as the above may seem to the indoctrinated,
if you have read previous blogs within this website you have by now accepted the reality of what is said.

**Boltzmann’s Constant
(k)**

Furthermore Boltzmann’s constant is no longer some universally applicable constant as was discussed in the Boltzmann blog.

I have always found it interesting how scientist have also wrongly arrived at the conclusion that based upon kinetic theory
and theorized temperature that the mean velocity and/or pressure exerted by a cosmic gas can be determined. Again traditional kinetic
theorists fail to appreciate that the only reason that intermolecular gaseous collisions appear to be elastic is because the experimental
wall’s molecules impose their kinematics onto the gas molecules that striking them. And even this illusion only happens when considering
sufficiently dilute gases, as has been emphasized by this author and is beheld in his new kinetic theory!

**Supersonic Solar Winds**

Of
course in cosmology there are no walls so all intermolecular gas collision will be inelastic therefore equations like the following
barometric relation should not be applied in cosmology. I.e.:

0 = d(2NkT)/dr + GM_{@}MN/rr (1) (reference E. N.Parker)

Where N is number of particles, k is Boltzmann’s constant, T is absolute temperature, G is
gravitational constant, M_{@} is mass of sun, M is molecule’s mass.

The barometric relation GM_{@}MN/rr is based upon the natural
relationship for matter with kinetic in a gravitational field, hence applies to cosmology. Unfortunately the pressure exerted by a
gas in a walled experimental system i.e. P=2NkT, does not apply to cosmology. It is actually limited to sufficiently dilute gases
in closed systems (systems enclosed in walls), as described by kinetic theory. Hence eqn (1) is not valid.

Interestingly eqn
(1) is the first equation used in determining some cosmological events including Eugene Parker’s^{1} solar winds. This is not to say
that supersonic solar winds do not exist rather the equations that we accept as defining them generally are.

Again this
not attack upon Parkers work, rather Parker’s work shows how absurdities can grow and develop, eventually becoming part of science’s
indoctrination.

**Cosmology in General**

Reference:

(1) Parker, E.N., “Dynamics of the Interplanetary Gas and Magnetic Fields”

This website is copyright of Kent W. Mayhew who in 2018 resides in Ottawa Ontario Canada

This website is full of new
ideas, which are the property of Kent W. Mayhew.

Furthermore you are free to share, copy
or distribute in any manner that you feel is warranted, so long as you fully respectfully reference the author (Kent W. Mayhew) in a
manner that you deem fit.

** In his** 1917